# Fe‐hcl: an efficient reagent for deprotection of oximes as well as selective oxidative hydrolysis of nitroalkenes and nitroalkanes to ketones: synthetic communications: vol 35, no 7

My NCERT book(Class 12) said the following for reduction of nitrobenzene using $ceSn/HCl$ & $ceFe/HCl$ :
Now, I have sầu been following this mechanism for this particular reduction, & it seems to me that the metal is getting oxidized to lớn +2 state wherever it is shown that 2 electrons are being transferred. If that is the case, then:

•Why is $cesắt + HCl$ being preferred?

•Because I looked it up on Wikipedia và it says that $ceSnCl2$ also gets hydrolysed to lớn liberate $ceHCl$ as follows:$ceSnCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) ⇌ Sn(OH)Cl (s) + HCl (aq)$

Or have I interpreted the mechanism incorrectly?

The book"s reasoning is correct. Fe/HCl gives $ceFeCl2$ on reaction và it gets hydrolyzed by steam vapors to lớn produces more hydrochloric acid and hydrogen to lớn push the reaction forward thus making the reaction self-sustaining to lớn produce more aniline from nitrobenzene.

$$ceFe + 2HCl -><160°C,CH3OH> FeCl2 + H2$$

$$ce3FeCl2 + 4H2O(steam) -> Fe3O4 + 6HCl + H2$$

whereas $ceSnCl2$ gives $ceSn(OH)Cl$ và 1 mole of hydroren chloride which is insufficient và it gets exhausted after sometime.

The other thing is cost factor as
Waylander said. Iron scrap is way cheaper than tin.

Both Sn/HCl & Fe/HCl reduction(Bechamp reduction) is replaced by catalytic hydrogenation due lớn the latter being more efficient & more productive in industial production. Fe/HCl reduction is now an academic interest & is studied as a route khổng lồ produce iron oxide based pigments.

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Nitrobenzene reduction with (tin) Sn catalyst: Why is C-H bond cleavage preferred over O-H bond cleavage?

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