Lump sum là gì

Roger Wohlner is a financial advisor with 20 years of experience in the industry. He is a thành viên of's Financial Review Board. He has been featured on Morningstar Magazine, Go Banking Rates, U.S. News & World Report, Yahoo Finance, The Motley Fool,, & numerous other sites. Roger received his MBA from Marquette University & his bachelor's in finance from the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh.

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What Is a Lump-Sum Payment?

A lump-sum payment is an often large sum that is paid in one single payment instead of broken up into lớn installments. It is also known as a bullet repayment when dealing with a loan. They are sometimes associated with pension plans & other retirement vehicles, such as 401k accounts, where retirees accept a smaller upfront lump-sum payment rather than a larger sum paid out over time. These are often paid out in the event of debentures.

Lump-sum payments are also used lớn describe a bulk payment khổng lồ acquire a group of items, such as a company paying one sum for the inventory of another business. Lottery winners will also typically have sầu the option to take a lump-sum payout versus yearly payments.

A lump-sum payment is an amount paid all at once, as opposed khổng lồ an amount that is divvied up & paid in installments.A lump-sum payment is not the best choice for every beneficiary; for some, it may make more sense for the funds to lớn be annuitized as periodic payments.Based on interest rates, tax situation, và penalties, an annuity may end up having a higher net present value (NPV) than the lump-sum.

Understanding a Lump-Sum Payment

There are pros và cons khổng lồ accepting lump-sum payments rather than an annuity. The right choice depends on the value of the lump sum versus the payments and one’s financial goals. Annuities provide a degree of financial security, but a retiree in poor health might derive sầu greater benefit from a lump sum payment if they think they will not live sầu long enough lớn receive sầu the entire benefit. And by receiving an upfront payment, you can pass on the funds khổng lồ your heirs.

Also, depending on the amount, an upfront payment might enable you lớn buy a house, a yacht, or another large purchase that you would otherwise not be able to afford with annuities. Similarly, you can invest the money và potentially earn a higher rate of return than the effective rate of return associated with the annual payments. Or, of course, you could thua money on your initial investment.

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It is not always best to take the lump-sum payment in lieu of periodic annual payments; if offered the choice, consider taxes, investments, và the net present value, which accounts for the time value of money.

Lump-Sums vs. Annuity Payments

To illustrate how lump-sum và annuity payments work, imagine you won $10 million in the lottery. If you took the entire winnings as a lump-sum payment, the entire winnings would be subject lớn income tax in that year, & you would be in the highest tax bracket.

However, if you choose the annuity option, the payments could come khổng lồ you over several decades. For example, instead of $10 million of income in one year, your annuity payment might be $300,000 a year. Although the $300,000 would be subject khổng lồ income tax, it would likely keep you out of the highest state tax brackets. You would also avoid the highest federal income tax bracket of 37% (for 2020 & 20) for single people with incomes greater than $523,600 or $628,300 for married couples filing jointly.

Such tax questions depover on the kích cỡ of the lottery win, current income tax rates, projected income tax rates, your state of residency when you win, in which state you will live after the win, và investment returns. But if you can earn an annual return of more than 3% khổng lồ 4%, the lump sum option usually makes more sense with a 30-year annuity.

Another big advantage of taking the money over time is that it provides winners with a "do-over" thẻ. By receiving a check every year, winners have sầu a better chance of managing their money properly, even if things go badly the first year.

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